Sumerianz Journal of Nutrition and Food Science



Volume 1 Issue 1 (2020)

Quality Parameters of Soy-Maize Akamu Paste from Maize and Sprouted Soybean Blends and Sensory Attributes of their Gruel for Complementary Feeding

Authors : Okwunodulu Nwazulu Innocent ; Eze Nkechinyere Lucy ; Okakpu Kasie Geraldine ; Okakpu Chidiebere John
Maize gruel (akamu) is widely relished by both young and old as breakfast as well as recovering patients and elderly persons. It is nutritionally deficient, hence the formulation with sprouted soybean for nutrient improvement to prevent hidden hunger. Sprouted soy cotyledons from 12h tap water steeped, 72h sprouted, 20 min boiled in 0.05% sodium bicarbonate solution and hand dehulled were blended with cleaned, 72h steeped and washed maize. Part of the blends (75: 25, 50: 50 and 25: 75, respectively for maize and soy cotyledons) were milled into soft paste, sieved and dewatered separately with double layered calico cloth to obtain hard pastes. The other blends were dried to constant weight at 600C in oven, cooled, milled and sieved into flour. With increase in sprouted soybean inclusion, there were significant (p<0.05) nutrient improvement in soy-maize akamu paste and the flour samples. Dried matter (86.23 - 86.97%), moisture (13.03-13.77%), protein (16.35-38.40%), fat (6.11-10.45%), fiber (2.05 - 4.11%) and ash (1.91 - 4.94%) increased while carbohydrate (60.41 - 38.32%) and energy (369.62 - 300.97Kcal) decreased. Bulk density (0.08 - 0.85 g/ml), swelling power (20.12 - 4.83), and gelatinization time (0.40 - 0.52 sec) increased while viscosity (90.50 - 83.26μPas) and gelatinization temperature (59.00 - 57.00°C) decreased. Gruel from 75% maize and 25% sprouted soybean had the highest acceptability score (7.85) which translate to like very much while that from 25%maize and 75% sprouted soybean had the least score (5.25) signifying like slightly on the Hedonic scale. Sprouted soybean blending showed an improvement in the nutrients content of soy-maize akamu and decrease in acceptability beyond 25% sprouted soybean inclusion level.

Pages: 33-40

Estimated Daily Intake and Risk of Acrylamide Concentration in Dutched Roasted Cocoa Nibs

Authors : Baidoo J. A. ; Quartey N. K. A. ; Ofosu I. W.
Acrylamide, a probable carcinogen, has been detected in many roasted cocoa nibs and this threatens the safety of cocoa products. Two key factors which have been noted to impact the final acrylamide levels in cocoa masse are identified as the degree of alkalization and roasting temperature in a previous study. Thus, the current study sought to optimize these conditions in order to assess the exposure and associated risks in cocoa products. Response Surface D-optimal design was used to design 28 experimental runs with roasting time (20 – 50 min), type of alkali salt (MgCO3, (NH4)2CO3, K2CO3), roasting temperature (110 – 140 °C) and alkali strength (1%, 3% and 5% w/w) as treatment factors. The acrylamide content for each alkalized cocoa masse was extracted using the QuEChERS method and HPLC analysis was run to determine the various acrylamide concentrations. Subsequently, the data was analyzed and fitted to a linear process order after which diagnostics were done to eliminate outliers. Optimization was done which predicted least acrylamide concentrations at an alkali strength of 2.5%, roasting temperature (140 °C), and a roasting time of 35 min for MgCO3 and 20 min for (NH4)2CO3 and K2CO3. Though lower concentrations of acrylamide were recorded for these alkalized cocoa beans, it is believed that a potentially carcinogenic furfural could be formed as a by-product. The predicted concentrations were subsequently used to determine the estimated daily intake (EDI), and then used to determine the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILTCR) and margin of exposure (MoE). These risk estimates were iterated 100,000 times in a Monte Carlo simulation and the central tendencies studied. The average exposure ranged from (3.45×10-8 – 4.57×10-8) in adults and (2.01×10-7 – 2.72×10-7) in children. Generally, higher exposures were observed in children relative to adults. Significantly, higher MoE far above the threshold (10,000) and lower ILTCR below the deminimis(×10-6) were recorded in all 3 alkali salts across all the indices in both adult and children consumers. This indicates negligible risk of developing cancer in both consumer groups. These findings further suggest that although all the 3 alkali salts produced lower risks, K2CO3 offered the least exposures and risk estimates. However, since a potentially carcinogenic furfural could be formed as a by-product in alkalized treatment, this is also a cause for concern.

Pages: 21-32

Moisture Sorption Isotherm and Shelf Life Prediction of Shredded Cassava (Ighu) Using Different Packaging Materials

Authors : Okakpu C. J. ; Okakpu K. G. ; Iroh N. E. ; Onwuneme E. S.
Ighu was produced from three different improved cassava varieties (TME419, TMS30572 and NR8082) NRCRI, Abia state. The moisture sorption isotherms of the ighu were obtained by standard gravimetric methods using concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) of 66% relative humidity conditioned at 40o C. Ighu was packaged in HDPE, LDPE and Laminated nylon for shelf life prediction using moisture sorption characteristics and water vapour permeability coefficient of the packaging material. Result of the moisture content analysis of the ighu varieties showed that the initial moisture content were 12.8 %, 11.6 % and 10.2 % for TME419, NR8082 and TMS30572 respectively, while the critical moisture content were 6 %, 5.92 % and TME419, NR8082 and TMS30572 respectively. Ighu varieties have shelf life prediction of 519, 403, and 342 days for TME419, TMS30572 and NR8082 respectively. The sorption kinetics showed slower rate of absorption at lower concentrations. The monolayer moisture content of the Ighu also showed that all the varieties could be stored for a longer time using LDPE as the recommended packaging material.

Pages: 13-20

Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea Mays L.) As Influenced by Some Indigenous Ectomycorhyza and Nitrogen Fertilizer in Bauchi State Nigeria

Authors : Shuaibu Yunusa Muhammad ; Buba Toma
A field trial was conducted at the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi to study the influence of nitrogen fertilizer and ectomycorhiza on the growth and yield of maize. The treatments consisted of two species of mycorhiza (Glomus and Gigaspora spp.) and three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg/ha), factorially combined to give six treatments combination and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Data was collected on plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, stem girth, cob girth, cob weight, 100 grain weight and grain yield. All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was adopted to separate treatments means. The result of the experiment revealed a significant (P=0.05) difference among the various treatments used throughout the study period. The result further indicated that, application of 120 kg N/ha was significantly (P=0.05) better than the other treatments in promoting growth and yield of maize. The result also showed that, among the two species of mycorhiza used, Glomus spp. was found to be statistically (P=0.05) better than Gigaspora spp. in promoting growth and yield of maize. Study on the interaction revealed that, application of 120 kg N/ha to maize inoculated with Glomus spp. gave significantly (P=0.05) higher growth and yield than the other treatments combination. Based on the result of this findings, application of 120 kg N/ha to maize inoculated with Glomus spp. can be adopted by farmers in the study area.

Pages: 6-12

Effects of Fertilizer Rates on Growth Parameters of Centrosema (Centrosema Pubescens) In Mubi Region of Adamawa State Nigeria

Authors : Babale D. M. ; Biyasa J. ; Sukamkari B. Y. ; Sunyasemeni E. ; S. Amos
A field trial was carried out in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria in 2019 to investigate effects of fertilizer rates on growth parameters of Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens) as it affects the average plant heights, leaf and branch numbers, biomass and dry matter yields at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after planting. The experimental design used was Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments consisting of fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) application rates of 0, 30, 40 and 50 Kg/ha replicated four times designated as treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The results indicated that fertilizer rates showed statistically significant variation (p<0.05) in plant heights, leaf and branch numbers, biomass and dry matter yields at the various periods of measurements. However, at 3 weeks after planting the values for leaf numbers showed no statistical significant (p>0.05) difference. It can be concluded that utilization of fertilizer for production of Centrosema forage is important for farmer, youth/ unemployed groups and investors who are interested in forage production. It is also recommended that cost- benefit analysis be conducted through hay or silage making applied on animals to determine responses.

Pages: 1-5