Sumerianz Journal of Social Science

Online ISSN: 2616-8693
Print ISSN: 2617-1716

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)

Journal Website:


Volume 5 Issue 4 (2022)

The Nature and Scope of Protracted Refugee Crisis in Kenya with Specific Reference to Garissa County

Authors : Lusiola A. O. ; Matanga K. F. ; Simiyu R.
By the end of 2019, the UNHCR estimated that 42.5 million people had been displaced around the world. As a result, short- and long-term effects were felt in host communities, from humanitarian disasters to security threats. This study conceptualizes that the refugee issue and human security are inextricably linked. The statement of the problem was to bridge the knowledge gap by assessing the influence of the protracted refugee crisis on human security. Therefore, the goal of this research was to assess the nature and scope of the protracted refugee crisis in Kenya with specific reference to Garissa County. The New Security Paradigm and Critical Theory guided this research. A descriptive survey research design was used with a study sample comprising 339 household heads including refugees’ and community household heads, UN Refugee Agency staff, NGO officials, and County and National Government officials. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Secondary data was gathered from textbooks, newspapers, periodicals, and articles. Quantitative data was coded and put into SPSS Version 21.0, and descriptive and inferential statistics such as Pearson Correlation, Spearman Rank Correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze it. Qualitative data was analyzed based on the content matter of the responses. The study found that a variety of factors contributed to the long-running refugee issue. Civil conflict, lawlessness, high crime rates, and the search for greener pastures are among them. A positive and statistically significant link existed between prolonged refugee crises and refugee crises (r=0.885, p0.01). The study concludes that the main reasons for the refugee crisis in Kenya are push factors from their home countries, such as civil war, lawlessness, and high crime rates. The study recommends a need for measures aimed at reining in on the protracted refugee crisis and also enhancement of human security which can be achieved via funding to deal with deplorable living conditions in refugee camps.

Pages: 103-118

Influence of the Kenya National Policy on Peacebuilding and Conflict Management Framework on the Sub-County Peacebuilding Committees in Mombasa County

Authors : Odallo D. O. ; Okoth P. G. ; Were M. E.
Global experience with sustainable peacebuilding has been diverse since the term was formally introduced to the world by the United Nations in 1992. Since then, peacebuilding has been implemented in the absence of a universally accepted approach or clear criteria for success. Multiple actors have conceptualized and implemented peacebuilding to correspond with their contexts and needs. This is true for Kenya and Mombasa County, in particular. Mombasa Sub-County Peacebuilding Committees have been conducting peacebuilding in the County, against the backdrop of old conflict drivers such as poverty and resource-based conflict, and emerging threats to peace such as drug trafficking and youth radicalization. Therefore, the ability of the Sub-County Peacebuilding Committees to foster sustainable peacebuilding in these circumstances needs to be interrogated. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the policy framework of the formal peacebuilding infrastructure in fostering sustainable peacebuilding. The conceptual framework was based on Galtung’s Theory of Peacebuilding, Galtung’s Theory of Structural Violence, and Lederach’s Conflict Transformation Theory. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and applied both convenience and purposive sampling techniques. Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaires, key informant interviews (KII), and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) guides and observation checklists. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data analysis. The study findings indicated that Mombasa County Sub-County Peacebuilding Committees are experiencing diminished agency because of a lack of resources to carry out peacebuilding work in the County. Those members of the Sub-County Peacebuilding Committees were not competent to undertake modern-day peacebuilding activities because of inadequate training. Therefore; the study recommends that the idea of peacebuilding through local peacebuilding structures such as Sub-County Peacebuilding Committees be a priority in Kenya’s peacebuilding discourse with some modifications in the formation and functioning of Sub-County Peacebuilding Committees. The Sub-County Peacebuilding Committees should be de-linked from the county security processes and positioned as the  “Honest Brokers for Peacebuilding”,  whose primary responsibility will be to harness all available resources in their locality to bear on their peacebuilding agenda. The national government should educate the public about peacebuilding and the role that Sub-County Peacebuilding Committees are expected to play in this agenda.

Pages: 86-102

Influence of Architectural Design of Arciss 2015 and R-Arciss 2018 Peace Agreements on Security Sector Reforms

Authors : Elijah Mwasi Mwanyika ; Prof. Pontian Godfrey Okoth ; Prof. Edmond Maloba Were
The world over, Peace Agreements remain the most frequently used means of ending conflict. For more than five decades, the Southern part of Sudan (now South Sudan) has been plagued by armed conflict, despite numerous conflict resolution efforts by both regional, international state and Non-State Actors. The study evaluates the influence of architectural design of the 2015 Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (ARCISS 201 and the 2018 Revitalised-Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan, (R-ARCISS 2018) on Security Sector Reforms (SSRs). The study was anchored on John Paul Lederach’s peace-building theory, social constructivism, Arnstein’s ladder of Citizen participation and securitisation theory. The study primarily adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey design, with correlational and explanatory research elements. Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used. Questionnaires, Content Analysis Guides, and focus Group discussions were also used. Target population was former and current members of armed groups in South Sudan. Snowball sampling was used to identify the respondents that were surveyed. Key informants were purposively sampled based on the individuals that could provide the most comprehensive information on the variables of interest to the study. For explanation and clarification, data from the study were presented using descriptive statistics such as tables, pie charts, bar graphs, and percentages, as well as inferential statistics. Findings indicated that the designs of both Peace Agreements are weak. As far as the process is concerned, weaknesses appear primarily where there were a limited number of mechanisms to address impediments to the agreement, little agreement on the ownership of natural resources, inadequate modalities of navigating the interests of external actors, and poor handling of differing political interests. It is recommended that a new process for a strong peace agreement be initiated, and that it should be preceded by rigorous baseline surveys so as to address some of the contentious root causes of the conflict such as negative ethnicity and militarisation along ethnic lines.

Pages: 71-85