Sumerianz Journal of Biotechnology

Online ISSN: 2617-3050
Print ISSN: 2617-3123

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)

Journal Website:


Volume 4 Issue 2 (2021)

Ongoing Clinical and Immunization Trials for Novel Zoonotic Covid -19 Pandemic

Authors : Ramya Kumari B. S.
Some of the contagious diseases have created history and also remains with us today. So it becomes utmost important to understand such infectious diseases and exploring their remedies. One such disease which has created havoc across the globe is COVID-19, caused by an agent SARS CoV-2 virus. The current threat of coronavirus is the human health and economy, which can be overcome by the development of a target vaccine at a specific level by blocking the entry of virus inside the host cell. This step not only will reduce the morbidity and mortality rate associated with this viral infection but will also improve upon the prevailing economy crisis. Hence, this review chapter aims at the ongoing clinical and immunization trials for novel zoonotic COVID-19 pandemic. Currently the clinical trials are happening throughout the world and all the trials are to be registered in publicly available domain which is recommended by ICMJE. Different phase of trials in various parts of the globe, includes Phase-I to Phase-III and insights of vaccine developers involved in the development of COVID vaccines are the focused areas in this review chapter.

Pages: 85-93

Characteristic Features and Signalling Cascade of Novel Zoonotic Coronavirus

Authors : Radha M. J. ; Geetika Pant
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to its highly virulent nature has created a health crisis worldwide. It has attracted biologists’ attention to understand the morphology, host-pathogen interaction and signalling cascade at the core level. The whole world has come to a standstill due to the contagious nature and transmission rate of this virus. To understand the risk of COVID-19 outbreak across different parts of the globe it is crucial to provide a mechanistic framework for the interrelation of comorbidities. This review chapter focuses on the characteristic features, signalling cascade, and the interplay between pathogenesis and unfolded protein response in coronavirus. Due to the complexity of the coronavirus genome and its replication cycle, our understanding of structural, non-structural and accessory proteins in virion assembly and involvement of host machinery is significant. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop effective antiviral doses and vaccines against coronavirus. Hence, updating the detailed mechanism of cross-talk between virus and host, signal and receptor and the evasion of cellular innate immune responses is of utmost importance to develop novel therapeutic strategies.

Pages: 77-84

Activity of Forest Elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) In Two Clearings within Ogooué Leketi National Park, Congo Brazzaville

Authors : Clement Inkamba-Nkulu ; Jean Malekani Mukulire ; Julien Punga Kumanege ; Jonas Nagahuedi Sodi Mbongu ; Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua
In order to increase our understanding of forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) vocal communication, this study examined the spatial and temporal activity of elephants from two forest clearings (Bissoloko and Madjouama). To obtain data on the visit of elephant in the clearings daily, it requires considerable human and financial resources for conservation programs observations. However, we deployed autonomous acoustic recorders “SM2” to assess elephants’ activities both day and night time from 2013 to 2014. Elephant visitation in these clearings depends on certain factors as, seasons, years, and preferences of elephant to use one or more site. As a results this study found that (i) elephants visited Bissoloko clearing more than Madjouama, although these two clearings were within 5 km distant one another; (ii) Eighty six per cent of elephant calls occurred at night, and large changes in call density at night often were not reflected in similar changes during the day; (iii) there were significant differences in the calls made at night; (iv) elephants were found to be visiting clearings more often in the wet season than in the dry season; (v) visitation was significantly higher in 2013 than in 2014. Elephants used randomly one or other clearings. This empirical study suggests that African forest elephant has two vocal communication practices. Spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges that help them to coordinate their movements and to bring them together. Both male and female elephants produce "mate attraction" rumbles to inform the opposite sex of their reproductive status. These results show the value of acoustic monitoring as a tool for better understanding of forest elephant behaviour. We suggest that passive acoustic monitoring should be incorporated into forest elephant monitoring programs to complement direct observations at forest clearings.

Pages: 67-76

Effect of Spoilage on the Antimicrobial Potential and Phytochemical Components of Ginger and Garlic

Authors : Osaro-Matthew R. C. ; Itaman V. O. ; Kogonye J.
This study evaluated the effect of microbial spoilage on the phytochemical component and antimicrobial potential of Garlic (Alliums Sativum) and Ginger (Zingiber offinale). The antimicrobial activities of both spoilt and un-spoilt Ginger and Garlic were assessed by measuring the inhibition zone diameter using agar well diffusion method. The result showed that both spoilt and un-spoilt samples were active against all test organisms with ethanolic extract of un-spoilt Garlic showing the highest activity against Staphylococcus sp. and Aspergillus sp with mean inhibition zone diameter (21.00mm and 21.50mm) respectively. Similarly the ethanolic extract of un-spoilt Ginger exhibited greatest activity against Staphylococcus sp. and Aspergillus sp with mean inhibition zone diameter (20.00Smm and 20.00mm) respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the samples revealed the absence of saponin in spoilt samples of both Ginger and Garlic while phenol and flavonoid became more prominent in the both spoilt samples. This study confirms that microbial degradation of some plant extracts does not affect the antimicrobial potential and suggest usage of these products even if spoilage is noticed.

Pages: 63-66

Evaluation of Mustard Seed (Brassica Nigra) Powder as Anaesthetic Agents in Different Life Stages of Black Jaw Tilapia (Sarotherodon Melanotheron)

Authors : Wilfred–Ekprikpo P. C.
This study assessed the anesthetic effects of mustard seed (Brassica nigra) powder in different life stages of Black Jaw Tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron). A total of 540 fish comprising of 180 each of: fingerlings (mean length 5.54cm ± 1.08SD and mean weight 12.04g ± 2.09SD); juveniles (mean length 10.02cm ± 3.91SD and mean weight 30.91g ± 4.02SD) and adult (mean length 13.01cm ± 2.66SD and mean weight 70.82g ± 7.01SD) of S. melanotheron were used for the study. They were exposed to aqueous extracts of mustard seed (Brassica nigra) powder at different concentrations: 0.00-control; 10.00; 20.00; 30.00; 40.00 and 50.00 mg/L at the rate of 10 fish per tank in triplicates. The results obtained indicated a size related response of the fish to mustard seed extracts. The induction time decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as the concentrations of the mustard seed extracts increased. The recovery time in the three sizes of exposed fish, generally increased as the concentrations of the anaesthetics increased. The survival rate was 100.00% in adult sizes of the exposed fish in all concentrations. While in fingerlings and juveniles, 90-95% survival rates were recorded at higher concentrations of the anaesthetics. This study therefore revealed that mustard seed can effectively be used as anaesthetics agent in S. melanotheron at optimum dose of 30mg/L.

Pages: 57-62

Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Ready-To Fry Frozen Chicken-Based Snack Items Sold in Bangladesh

Authors : Anamika Chakrabarty ; Tamanna Islam ; Saurab Kishore Munshi
Microorganisms that are capable of spoiling the product during chill storage as well as several foodborne pathogens can be present in frozen snacks. The present study attempted to investigate the presence of microbial contaminants along with their antibiotic resistance pattern in frozen snacks. In this regard, a total of 15 ready-to-fry frozen chicken-based snack items including three each of chicken pops, chicken samosa, chicken lemongrass lollypop, chicken nuggets and chicken meatball were collected from super shops of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Microbiological analysis revealed that all the samples were highly contaminated with total viable bacteria and fungi in an average of 6 and 4 log cfu/g, respectively which exceeded the standard microbial limit. Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were encountered in all samples. E. coli, Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were also found in a majority of the samples. Besides, all the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant. The isolates showed almost 100% resistance against Cefuroxime and Cefixime. A higher proportion of resistance was also reported against Vancomycin and Azithromycin. Whereas, Gentamycin, Ceftriaxone, Colistin and Levofloxacin sensitivity were found in all the isolates. Such chicken-based frozen snack items contaminated with multi-drug resistant microorganisms could be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases.

Pages: 52-56