Sumerianz Journal of Biotechnology

Online ISSN: 2617-3050
Print ISSN: 2617-3123

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)

Journal Website:


Volume 1 Issue 2 (2018)

Production and Spectrophotometric Quantification of Bioethanol from Pineapple Fruit Skin

Authors : Braide W. ; Udegbunam L. I. ; Mike-Anosike E. E.
This study investigated the potentials of pineapple waste (fruit skin) as an alternative and cost-effective lignocellulose for bioethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The substrate was pretreated using dilute hydrochloric acid (HCL) to alter the complex structure of the carbohydrate polymers to removing lignin and hemicelluloses, reduce cellulose crystallinity and increase the porosity of the materials. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out to further depolymerize the cellulose component to simple sugars. Hydrolysis and fermentation lasted for five days. Fermentation parameters such as pH, temperature, reducing sugar (brix level) and specific gravity were monitored for five days. The concentrations of reducing sugar (brix level) were calculated based on the relationship: Brix = 261.3×(1–1/S.G).The specific gravity of the wort was determined before and during fermentation using the specific gravity bottle of known weight. The pH and temperature of the wort was determined using calibrated HANNA multi parameter probe (HI9811-5) while ethanol content was determined spectrophotometrically using acid dichromate solution. The specific gravity, pH, temperature and reducing sugar of each of the substrates decreased as the fermentation time increases. The substrate recorded a total reducing sugar content of 17.5mg/ml. The pH of the broth for the substrate decreased during the five days fermentation period with optimum pH for ethanol production ranging from 4.9 to 5.2 for the yeast and 5.0 to 5.8 for the bacterium at 72hrs incubation. Fermentation using S. cerevisiae was slow and required three days to complete with maximum ethanol yield of 51%. The fermentation with Z. mobilis proceeded very rapidly and was completed in three days with maximum ethanol yield of 78%. Sugar utilization was faster in Z. mobilis than in S. cerevisiae with a corresponding increase in ethanol yield. Conclusively, Z. mobilis could be considered a better microorganism for bioethanol production.

Pages: 67-74

Comparing Some Plants Grown in Van and Canakkale (Turkey)

Authors : Avni Ozturk ; Omer Kilic
Van is located in the coast of Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia of Turkey in Iranian-Turanian floral region where terrestrial climate is dominated. The area is exciting in terms of historical past and natural richness. Canakkale is located in Marmara region of Turkey and schrub and forest vegetation is dominant in Canakkale. Canakkale is interesting due to historical places, natural richness, very nice landscape and view. In the present study plant grown in Van and Canakkale were compared. The plant samples were identified by using ’Flora of Turkey’ (Davis, 1965-1988). Plant samples were collected, pressed according to herbarium technics and deposited in the VANF Herbarium. In general, cosmopolite plants are grown in both Canakkale and Van provinces. In Canakkale mediterranean climate is dominant, therefore schrub plants are dominat in the area whereas scrubs are not dominant in Van. Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra forests are seen in Kazdagları especially in Ayazma region. The natural distribution of Pinus nigra is not seen in Van, however this plant can  cultivated in this city. Some of the plants given in the present study are endemic for the regions. The geographical distribution, common and different plant taxa of the cities are given in this study. this study suggests that such field studies should be planned in future covering the other parts of the Turkey, in order to contribute to floristic studies as well as helping botanist, agronomists, farmers and related study areas.

Pages: 61-66

The Use of Synbiotics (Prebiotic and Probiotic) in Aquaculture Development

Authors : Okey I. B. ; Gabriel U. U. ; Deekae S. N.
Synbiotic is a dietary supplement that combine probiotic and prebiotic, which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal balance, health and growth. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplement, while prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by stimulating growth and activity of the intestinal bacteria. Researches have shown that gastrointestinal bacteria play important role in affecting the nutrient and health of the host organism. Several methods of altering the intestinal microflora to achieve positive effects such as better resistance to pathogen, enhancing growth and stimulation of the host immune system have been studied in fish and shrimps. Synbiotics is been used as a replacement for antibiotics used to enhance growth and feed efficiency in aquatic organism and is associated with incalculable risks for human health. Studies on the use of prebiotic singly or in combination with probiotic (synbiotic) in farm animals and aquaculture have shown to improve the energy expenditure derive from other sources of food, increase the incorporation of protein for growth, increase the immunity and disease resistance of the host organism. Probiotic approaches have been extensively used but viability after ingestion is yet to be accertain. Prebiotic are chosen to stimulate some intestinal flora (Bifidobacteria spp and Lactobacilli) but may reduce the population of some beneficial bacteria (Aeromonas spp and Carnobacterium spp) in the colon. The concept of synbiotic is quite new and is introduced to solve the problems encounter by single application of probiotic and prebiotic.despite the beneficial effect on the use of probiotic and prebiotic on aquaculture species research on the benefits on the use of symbiotic is still inadequate. This paper therefore gives reviews of researches on the effects, mode of action of synbiotics and their potential for further application in aquaculture production.

Pages: 51-60

Estimation of Potential Health Risk Due to Consumption of Carrots, Cabbage and Onions Grown in Challawa River Basin Around Challawa Industrial Layout, Kano, Nigeria

Authors : Udiba U. U. ; Udofia U. U. ; Bate Garba
Contamination of food by heavy metals has made dietary intake one of its major entry routes into humans. Contents of lead, cadmium , chromium and zinc in carrots, cabbage and onions grown in Challawa River basin around Challawa industrial layout Kano was measured to estimate potential public health risk using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer (model AA-6800, Japan) after wet digestion. The ranges of concentrations (mg/kg) were: (Pb) 0.34-1.03, (Cd) 0.20-0.36, (Cr) 1.19-3.76 and (Zn) 2.09-4.54 for carrots, (Pb) 0.46-0.76, (Cd) 0.21-0.51, (Cr) 0.24-0.47 and (Zn) 1.87-5.32 for cabbage and (Pb) 0.56-0.95, (Cd) 0.01-0.16, (Cr) 0.34-0.56 and (Zn) 5.23-19.43 for onions. Lead and cadmium concentrations were found to be above WHO/FAO permissible levels except for cadmium in onions. Zinc content of onions was also above acceptable limits. The average values of Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the metals were above the recommended daily intakes (RDI) and upper tolerable daily intakes (UL), except for zinc in carrots and cabbage. The average Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) of lead and cadmium for the crops were found to be above 1.00 indicating potential health risk, cadmium in onions being the only exception. Hazard index (HI) for a typical adult of body weight 70 kg considered in this study was found to be 2.74 for carrots, 3.05 for cabbage and 2.02 for onions. The study concludes that perennial intake of these vegetables from the study area is likely to induce serious adverse health effects.

Pages: 41-50

Prevalence and Intensity of Plasmodium Infection Among Pregnant Women Attending Anti-Natal Clinics in Awka Metropolis

Authors : Onyebueke A. C. ; Nwakaogor G. U. ; Nwankwo A.
Malaria in pregnancy is a leading cause of mortality in pregnant women and foetus. A study on the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium infection among pregnant women attending clinics in Awka metropolis, Anambra State was carried out between October 2015 and February 2016. Finger prick method was used in collecting blood from 577 pregnant women that attended antenatal clinics and the blood samples were examined for Plasmodium parasite and intensity of infection. Information obtained were analyzed using simple ratios, percentages and charts, chi-square was used to test associations among variables at 95% level. Of the 577 pregnant women examined, 358 (62.0%) were positive for Plasmodium parasite. Two hundred and thirteen (59.5%) had mild infections, 131 (36.6%) moderate and 14 (3.9%) severe infections. Higher prevalence was recorded among young pregnant women, 15-24 years at 65.4% and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The difference in prevalence among parity and trimester was also statistically significant (p<0.05). Prevalence of Plasmodium infection was higher among non-users (76.6%) and difference depending on frequency of ITN usage was significant (p<0.05).

Pages: 34-40