Sumerianz Journal of Biotechnology

Online ISSN: 2617-3050
Print ISSN: 2617-3123

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)

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Volume 4 Issue 3 (2021)

Hypoglycemic Activities of Ethanolic Leave Extract of Acalypha Wilkesiana in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

Authors : Iyamu A. O. ; Otamere H. O. ; Akpamu U. ; Nwadike I. ; Njoku O. U. ; Ezeanyika L. A.
Diabetes is a rampant metabolic disorder of insulin deficiency or resistance. In support of the alternative therapy quest, this study investigates the antidiabetic actions of ethanolic leave extract of Acalypha wilkesiana (A. wilkesiana) in diabetic rats. The study was conducted in 3 phases using streptozotocin (50mg/kg) induced diabetic adult Wistar rats. In phase one, 18 diabetic rats were divided into 3 groups (n=6) and treated with distilled-water (10ml/kg), glimepiride (0.1mg/kg) and ethanolic leave extract of A. wilkesiana (250mg/kg) respectively. On separate 18 diabetic rats (phase two), 5% glucose (10ml/kg) was administered after treatments as in phase one. Blood glucose was measured at 0 and 30-minute intervals for 180 minutes in both phases. On another 18 diabetic rats (phase three), similar treatments were given daily for 14 days. Blood glucose was measured at day 0, 3 days after induction, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days treatments. ANOVA was carried out with p <0.05 as significant. The results showed progressively hypoglycemic actions significant from the 90th minute with glimepiride (285.17±12.09mg/dl) and the 120th minute with the extract (279.83±14.88mg/dl) through 180 minutes compared to control in 1st-phase. There was a significant obliterating effect on glucose-induced hyperglycemia in a time-dependent manner at 90th through 180th minutes after glucose loading in glimepiride and extract-treated groups compared to control (2nd phase). Streptozotocin-induced decreased body weight was improved in glimepiride and extract-treated groups by days 7 and 14 and there was a significant steady duration-dependent decrease in blood glucose from the 3rd to 14th day of treatments compared to control. The findings suggest that ethanolic leaves extract of A. wilkesiana possesses antidiabetic action probably through stimulation of pancreatic β-cells or improves insulin action.

Pages: 126-132

In vitro Antioxidant and In vivo Hepatocurative and Nephrocurative Activities of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Newbouldia laevis in Albino Rats

Authors : Mohammed A. Sulaiman ; Mahmoud S. Jada ; Augustine Elizabeth ; Abubakar Umar Modibbo
The in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo hepatocurative and nephrocurative potential of Newbouldia laevis aqueous leaf extract (NLALE) was evaluated. The study used 30 male, albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 180 ± 20 g, of which 25 were intoxicated by oral administration of a single dose of diclofenac (100 mg/kg b. wt.). Animals were treated by oral administration of silymarin (200 mg/kg b. wt.), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg b. wt.) and NLALE (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b. wt.) for seven consecutive days before animals were sacrificed on the 8th day and serum/plasma was analyzed for biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Phytochemical screening of NLALE revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids and tannins. The extract scavenged DPPH radical, reduced Fe3+ and inhibited TBARs in comparable manner to ascorbic acid in vitro. NLALE also attenuated diclofenac-induced liver and kidney intoxication as indicated by the significantly (p<0.05) reduced levels of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity: ALT, AST, bilirubin, but increased total protein levels and nephrotoxicity: urea, creatinine, Na+ and K+. The observed effects are dose dependent as the 400 mg/kg b. wt. appeared to be more potent than the 200 mg/kg b. wt. dose. It may be concluded from this study that Newbouldia laevis leaf has ameliorative effect against diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity probably through antioxidative mechanism and the curative claim and the folkloric use of the plant in the treatment of liver and kidney diseases have been scientifically validated.

Pages: 114-125

Mini Review of Parasitoids Collected from Dipterans (Flies) in the Brazilian Cerrado Biome

Authors : Carlos Henrique Marchiori
These dipterans use decaying organic matter for food and ovi/ larviposition, so the species of these families easily adapt to anthropic environments, which makes them insects considered to be synanthropic cosmopolitans of importance for public health. The collection was built from articles (describing the objective and results) from 1999 and 2010 with the theme: dipterous parasitoids elaborated from 2000 to 2021 in the cerrado biome of the states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The most used parasitoids in biological control are in the Hymenoptera. Within Hymenoptera Parasitic and the most used families are Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Trichogrammatidae, Eulophidae and the superfamily Chalcidoidea (Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae and Aphelinidae) and Coleoptera parasitoids of the Staphilinidae family.

Pages: 107-113

Biodiversity of Forest Elephants (Loxodonta Cyclotis) Diet in the Ogooué Leketi National Park, Congo Brazzaville

Authors : Clement Inkamba-Nkulu ; Jean Malekani Mukulire ; Corneille Ewango Ndomba ; Julien Punga Kumanenge ; Jonas Nagahuedi Sodi Mbongu ; Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua
The Ogooué Leketi National Park (OLNP) is located within the Batéké-Léconi-Léfini Landscape in the central basin of the Congo River. The Ogooué Leketi Elephant Project (OLEP) area is important for biodiversity conservation from its significant populations of forest species (forest elephant, gorillas, chimpanzees, duikers, monkeys, etc.) combined with savanna species (Grimm’s duiker, side-striped jackal, etc). Elephant sign is highest 0.9/km in the northwest of the Landscape in the border area of the Batéké Plateau National Park in Gabon where a number of mineral-rich clearings, or bais, attract forest elephants and others wildlife. Elephants travel a long distance and consume diverse plants and occasionally animals’ species from one clearing to others throughout the forest. This paper intends to provide an overall preliminary list of plants consumed by forest elephants across their feeding trials. The results of the study points to the fact that, elephants were found to be feeding on 258 different vegetal species and three animal species recorded from twenty-six elephants feeding trials from March 2013 to December 2014 through different methods. Among these plant species, 156 were identified by us and checked by botanists in both the CERVE at Brazzaville and herbarium of Kinshasa University. Elephants were not only eating plants but they were also consuming occasionally some invertebrate such as bees, termites and ants. An analysis of 53 dung piles revealed that 43 dung piles had traces of 26 species of fruit consumed by elephants while 10 dung piles had no traces of fruits. The OLNP is among the least described protected areas in the Republic of Congo, despite its speculated high potential biodiversity. This lack of ground-truth knowledge is attributed to the status of the protected area that Congolese government classified as park in 2018 after 14 years of existence.

Pages: 94-106