Sumerianz Journal of Education, Linguistics and Literature

Online ISSN: 2617-1201
Print ISSN: 2617-1732

Quarterly Published (4 Issues Per Year)

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Volume 2 Issue 12 (2019)

Corpus Based Study of Discourse Markers in the Pakistani English Newspaper Opinions “The News” Newspaper

Authors :
Tayyiba Hanif ; Amna Arshad
Discourse markers are defined as a “glue” that binds pieces of knowledge together to bring reader’s attention. The aim of this research is to find out the functions of metadiscourse markers in “The News” newspaper. This is a corpus based study consisting of 20000 words of data. The data is collected from the Pakistani English newspaper opinions (PENO) “The News” (TN) newspaper of one month Sep, 2019. This paper uses a mixed method approach, both qualitative and quantitative. This study is based on Hyland’s model of DCs. The results of this study have been shown that DMs are used for coherence, as cohesive devices. This paper answers the questions of “what”, “why”, and “which”. The quantitative results of this study revealed that textual markers were used more frequently in PENO. The study is limited to sufficient amount of data. The study can prove helpful for researchers for further studies about functions of MMs.

Pages: 184-190

Translating Chu Lacquer Wares

Authors : Shenghua Luo
As the precious wealth of human civilization, Chu lacquer wares are the carrier that reflects the long history and culture of Chu State or Chu region. The translation of Chu lacquer wares texts in museums plays a very important role in the exchange and demonstration of Chu culture. This paper tries to make it clear about the structural features of Chu lacquer wares texts in museums: the picture of Chu lacquer ware; the name of Chu lacquer ware; the dynasty of the Chu lacquer ware; the unearthed place of Chu lacquer ware; the dimension and background introduction of Chu lacquer ware. Based on the analysis of “texts in museums” rather than “museum as text”, we seek to explore distinct characteristics of the language of Chu lacquer wares texts in museums that are objective, explanatory, communicative and concise. Through investigating the translation of Chu lacquer wares texts in museums, we are able to observe that the main translation methods of each component are transliteration, literal translation, free translation, addition and omission in translation, and a variety of translation methods. It is noted that literal and free translation are popular among various methods. Considering the cultural and historical factors, adopting transliteration mainly by Chinese pinyin is acceptable to handle some special place names, dates, dynasties and so on.

Pages: 175-183

The Social Role of Extra Lessons in Zimbabwean High Density Secondary Schools

Authors : Richard Bukaliya
This study was aimed at unearthing the social effects of extra lessons. The researcher adopted an interpretivist paradigm and used the qualitative approach. The multiple case study design was used owing to the three high density secondary schools in Chegutu urban, Zimbabwe. The study adopted multi method approach to data generation. Interviews, documents analysis and focus group discussions were adopted. A multi-perspective view was obtained from teachers, schools inspectors, parents and learners selected through critical case purposive sampling. A sample of twenty-three participants was used. Thematic analysis was used to sift the data. From the findings, it was revealed that while extra lessons had a number of positive social roles, they also had some negative social effects among the different stakeholders. Results show that extra lessons were used for the establishment of cordial relationships among learners and between teachers and learners interacting in small groups. Reduction of criminal activities was one of the benefits derived by society from learners attending extra lessons. However, attending extra lessons resulted in behaviour adulteration and modification. Extra lessons also exposed learners to abuse by teachers and contributed to the breakdown of the social fabric in the traditional family, because they consumed most of the time families were supposed to be together. The researcher proposed that the centralised model of extra lessons, where learners and teachers gather for extra lessons could be adopted so that there are no malpractices especially by teachers who have been accused of abusing learners in private places where extra lessons are offered. With some level of monitoring by MOPSE officials, centres and private places where extra lessons are offered need to be supervised so as not to be places of bad behaviour. Since extra lessons are based on the ability of the parents to pay, thus contributing to social inequalities among the people in the communities, the government could equalise the opportunities to attend through the creation of extra lesson centres. There is need to set standards and provide operating licences for service providers. Monitoring should be an on-going exercise to make sure standards are being upheld.

Pages: 162-174

Analysis of Linguistic Manifestation of Modal Verbs in Pakistani English Newspaper Editorials–A Corpus Based Study

Authors : Iqra Bano ; Mubrah Mubeen ; Amna Arshad
The aim of this research paper is to investigate linguistic manifestation of modal verbs in the editorials of Pakistani English newspapers i.e. The Dawn, The Nation and The News. The paper first focuses on which modal verbs are more frequently used by editorial writers and which modal verbs are less frequently used by editorial writers. Secondly, it also focuses on the linguistic manifestation of frequently used modal verbs. Thirdly, it deals with how modal auxiliaries are used by editorial writers to shape and reshape readers’ opinions towards specific issues. To fulfill above research objectives a corpus of 25 editorials of month of march 2019 from Pakistan’s wide read newspapers i.e. The Dawn, The Nation and The News has been collected. For analysis AntConc 3.4.4 version is used and for the interpretation of modality (Halliday, 2004) functional approach has been employed. Finding of the research reveals that editorial writers have used the most the low value modal auxiliaries and auxiliaries of possibilities, permission and ability (i.e. can, could, may, might) in order to create politeness within the text. On the other hand, modal verbs of prediction or and modal verb of necessity are less frequently used. The Nation is more occupied not only in the use of modal verbs but also in the use of less frequently used modal verbs as compared to The Dawn and The Nation.

Pages: 156-161

Extra Lessons and Academic Achievement of Learners Among Urban Day High Density Secondary School Learners

Authors : Richard Bukaliya
This multiple case study was an analysis of the perceptions of teachers, parents, school inspectors and learners towards the role of extra lessons on the academic achievement of learners in three secondary schools in Chegutu Urban, Zimbabwe. The study was guided by the Incentive Theory of Motivation developed by Young (1936), which postulates that there are many reasons that drive people towards doing certain things. The study adopted the interpretivist paradigm that hinges on the premise that social meaning is created by interacting with various participants affected by a phenomenon it was rooted in the qualitative approach. Interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis were used to generate data. The results of the study show that extra lessons were used to improve learners` academic achievement. Extra lessons came in as a form of remediation for learners who failed to grasp concepts during the formal learning school hours. The lessons also enhanced slow learners’ achievement and sustained gifted learners` academic levels through extension work. They helped learners in getting admission into institutions of higher learning. Due to the positive academic role of the extra lessons, it was recommended that there is need to take extra lessons seriously. Extra lessons could be used to make up for the time limitations in the urban day high density secondary schools where there is double sessioning. However, there is need to monitor the learners as they go away for the extra lessons to find out if, indeed, they are benefitting from them. Learners, who stand to benefit from the extra lessons, need to take into account that they should not wait for teachers to do virtually everything for them but rather use extra lessons for guidance on how they go about certain activities. Learners should do most of the activities through learner centred approaches, under the guidance of the extra lessons teachers. There is need for a legal frame work to operationalise the extra lessons. The Government of Zimbabwe could have extra lessons as a revenue base through which teachers practising extra lessons could have their extra remuneration from extra lessons taxed.

Pages: 144-155

Strategies to Improve Teaching Effectiveness of Beginning Teachers in a School Setting

Authors : Ige Akindele Matthew
That teachers are important in a school setting, cannot be overemphasized. A teacher however has to be equipped with knowledge and skills necessary for effective teaching of his/her pupils/students. Apart from the knowledge already acquired in educational institution(s), a teacher has to garner enough experience, to be effective in teaching. A beginning teacher possesses less teaching experience, compared to an old teacher. He/she needs adequate attention in school, to achieve his/her objectives, and most importantly, the school objectives, as well as effective teaching of pupils/students. In this paper, the strategies that can be adopted by school administrator, to improve the teaching of such teachers, such as: orientation, mentoring, exposure to workshops, conferences and seminars, among others, are examined.

Pages: 137-143

Linguistics Aesthetics and Contributory Values of Bura Karapuyeri (Proverbs)

Authors : Bulus Wayar ; Joseph Bala
This paper comprises a collection of Bura karapuyeri (proverbs). Proverbs are conventional fixed expressions. They can be used for fluent, aesthetic and increase understanding not only of the target language, but also the culture of the people who use them. Thus, proverbs present wisdom, truth, moral and traditional views in a metaphorical manner. Oral sources were the only means in which the data were gathered. Great and literate Reverends, pastors and other old people from Buraland facilitated the retrieval of the information through impromptu interviews.  The proverbs were produced in vernacular followed by translations into English using both linguistic and non linguistic commentaries in English.  The paper investigated that Bura Karapuyeri have multifaceted dimensions: linguistic, social, religious, cultural and educational preoccupations which have to be understood and interpreted within appropriate speech contexts. The contexts played crucial roles as they mitigate their elucidation. Consequently, proverbs could enrich the addressees’ vocabularies. However, it was not only a matter of the number of words learnt, but the sayer, the addressee, the purpose, the manner and circumstances of use determine the authenticity of Bura karapuyeri. Furthermore, the picturesque and imaginative forms of expressions of many Bura karapuyeri were applied to actions, objects, and human descriptions through figurative expressions which conveyed abstract ideas in vivid and imaginative ways. One functional role of the karapuyeri was to manifest depth of feelings and artistry demonstrations of linguistic artfulness since every not member of the society was endowed with karapuyeri.

Pages: 126-136

The Relevance of Orality the Performance Context and Ritual to the Concept of African Traditional Drama

Authors : Francis M. Ganyi ; James O. Okpiliya
(1) Introduction. (2) The Problem of perception of African Traditional Drama. (3) Ritual and the Making of African Traditional Drama. (4) Orality and the Performance Context in the Making of African Traditional Drama. (5) The Dynamics of the Oral Performance Context.(6) Conclusion. Followed by References. The concept of African Traditional drama has elicited diverse and sometimes derogatory connotations in the past from alien and sometimes, surprisingly, indigenous African critics. The contention has always been that Africans lack a dramatic tradition comparable to the Western concept of dramaturgy. This paper, therefore, focuses on an analysis of what constitutes African traditional drama and posits that while the dramatic impulse is inherent in all human societies, the methods for the realization of that dramatic impulse may differ according to environmental needs and the societal concept of the aesthetics of literary composition and presentation.

Pages: 120-125

Stylistic Analysis of Transitivity Features in Selected Excerpts from Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus (2003)

Authors : Innocent Sourou Koutchadé ; Allagbé Adebayo Ayodélé ; Chineye Maouna Toulassi
This study explores the Transitivity features (Process Types, Participants and Circumstances) in two extracts drawn from Adichie (2003) in order to find out the salient linguistic resources which serve to encode her literary style and mind-style. It uses the Hallidayan brand of linguistics called Systemic Functional Linguistics (cf. Halliday (1971); Eggins (1994/2004); Fontaine (2013), etc.), mainly the grammar of Ideational/Experiential Meaning (otherwise known as Transitivity) to analyze the selected extracts both quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings reveal that the writer has used the six process types (material, mental, behavioral, verbal, existential and relational) at varying degrees, but the most dominant type in these extracts is material process, mainly transitive material process, the agency in these processes is predominantly marked as externally-caused and the circumstances, especially circumstances of location and manner, markedly tend to encode a typical spatio-temporal setting therein. All these features denote the writer’s preference of/for physical and concrete depiction.

Pages: 110-119