Sumerianz Journal of Scientific Research
Online ISSN: 2617-6955
Print ISSN: 2617-765X
Journal Website: https://www.sumerianz.com/?ic=journal-home&journal=29
Volume 3 Issue 8 (2020)
Water Quality Indices Based Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Bhoghapuram, Pusapatirega and Denkada Mandals of Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : G. V. R. Srinivasa Rao ; G. Rupakumari ; B. KalyanaramuAbstract:
The Water Quality Indices (WQI) of Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and Weighted Arithmetic (WA) models were applied to the assessment of groundwater quality for drinking in Bhoghapuram, Pusapatirega and Denkada mandals of Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh. The groundwater samples were collected from bore wells of 22 selected sampling locations at regular monthly intervals (from November 2018 to October 2019) in the study area. Various parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, TH, TA, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, F- of samples were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. Range and Mean for measured parameter values of each sample and terms of CCME index like Scope F1, Frequency F2, and Amplitude F3 were calculated. The overall quality was assessed using Canadian Council of Ministry of Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) and Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index (WA-WQI) Models. From CCME-WQI, it is observed that quality of about 4.6% of the water samples is Excellent, about 13.6% is Good, about 27.3% is Fair, about 22.7% is Marginal and remaining 31.8% is Poor. And from WA-WQI analysis, it is observed that quality of about 27.3% of the water samples is good, about 36.4% is poor, about 13.6% is very poor and remaining 22.7% is unsuitable for drinking purpose in the study area.
The Link Between Livelihood Options and Conflict Dynamism Within Kerio Valley Delta, Kenya
Authors : Michael Kiplagat Aiyabei ; Dr. Ferdinanad Nabiswa MakhanuAbstract:
The demographic consequences of conflict and violence in the developing world are receiving increased attention and so is conflict in Kenya. Although Kenya is considered peaceful, a closer scrutiny reveals an unprecedented wave of internal and cross-border conflicts. However, to what extent livelihood options have impacted the dynamics of conflict in the Kerio Valley Delta remains significantly uninvestigated; particularly now that the conflict has escalated and is committed with more creativity and sophistication. The study thus, sought to establish the relationship between livelihood options and conflict dynamism within Kerio Valley Delta, Kenya. Two theories, the Sustainable livelihood model and the conflict transformation theory anchored the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design to target the community members in the in the Kerio Valley Delta. The sample size was calculated by getting 30% of the target population. Snowball sampling was used based on the acquaintances who know the resource persons from the community. This study utilized questionnaires and interview schedule to get relevant data from the respondents. The study used inferential analysis (Pearson’s’ correlations and logistic regression) techniques to analyze the quantitative elements of the data received from the questionnaires categorized per objective. The results show that insufficient livelihood assets, strategies and outcomes created an enhanced influence on conflicts in the Kerio Valley Delta. The study thus recommends that a systematic and concretized framework to deal with the causes, nature and underpinnings of conflict should be created. The inhabitants should also be empowered to progress in their livelihood status to decrease the chances for conflicts.